C2C Care: Copyright for Museums

C2C Care: Copyright for Museums


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C2CC Webinar - Copyright (February 27, 2019)_0




Goahead,Susan.

Hi,everyone.Welcome,today.I
haveafewslides
asusual.
Youwill
notethe
newbranding
forthe

AIC and FAIC.And
that'show
we'regoingtolook.

Andif
youhave--


youcan--

wehaveawhole
lotofdownof
handoutstoday.
Youcandownloadthem
fromthe
handoutsmaterials
downbelow
thechatbox.

And
alsoifyouhave
anyquestions,I'llcollect
them.Soputthem
inthechatbox.
I'llmakesurethey
getansweredatthe
end.And--


[LAUGHS]

--I'msorry.



Andifyouwant
tokeepinformedof
what'sgoingonwith
ConnectingtoCollectionsCare,


youcan

jointhe

C2CC-Annouce-List,




oryoucanlike
usonFacebookorfollowus
onTwitter.
Theannouncelisthas

maybeoneortwo
messagesa
monthatmost.And

that'sareallygood
waytokeeptrack
ofwhatwe'redoing.

Ifyouhavequestions
concerningthe
careofyourcollections,
youcanjointhe
ConnectingtoCollectionsCare
Community.And


theinstructions
ofhowtodo
thatare
onour
website.Excuse
me,I'mlosingmy
voice.And
ifyouhavesuggestions
orproblems,
youfeel
freetocontactmeanytime.This
ismyemailaddress.

Wehave
comingupina
fewweeks
awebinar
onplanningfornatural

disastersandbotanicalcollections.
Andthat
couldmean
ahistoric
garden.It
couldmeantheiconic
treeoutside
yourmuseum.
Itcouldmeanyour
botanicalgarden.

It'sany
placewhereyouhave
liveplants
thatyouneedto
takecareof.

Andthenattheend
ofMarch
andonintoJune,

wehave
acourse--
"PlanningYour
RE-ORGProject."
RE-ORGis
aprogram
thatwasstartedby
Akron.This
isbeingco-hostedwith
theCanadian
ConservationInstitute.It'sthefirst
timethey've
taughtthisprogramintheUS.
It'sa
fabulousprogram
forworking
onstorageandsmall
collections.Andnow
I'mgoingtoturn

thisovertoAnnYoungwho'sourspeaker
today.And
takeitaway.

Thankyou,Susan,
and thankyou,Mike,forkeepingus
allgoingtechnologicallyAsSusan
mentioned,myname is AnnYoung.I'mtheadministrator
of rights and reproductions
attheIndianapolis
forMuseumofArt
atNewfields.

Ihavetogive
youthisdisclaimer.Iamnotyour
lawyer,nor
doIplayone
onTV.
Nothingintoday'swebinar
isintended
tobe
legal advice.







SoI'mjumping right into
thingshere.
Feel free topost anyquestions
thatyoumighthave
inthe
generalchatareaand
we'll get to as many as


wecan

atthe
endofthewebinar.


Beforewedelve
[INAUDIBLE]intotocopyright,it'ssuper[INAUDIBLE].
Butone
aspectIntellectualPropertylaw
orIP.

Andcollectionsmayintersect
withor
allthese
differenttypesofIPs.



Copyrightby
faris
aformofIP

thatculturalcollectionswithinour[INAUDIBLE]attheabsolutemost.

Sowhat
iscopyright?

Andasofhere,

forany ofyouarejoiningusfrom
outsideoftheUnited
States

[INAUDIBLE],we'regoing
tobe
focusingtoday's
talkaround
copyrightin
theUnitedStates,thelawsuit,and
the
practices.Andof
thenuancesofcopyright
lawwill
relaxfrom


countrytocountry--that
itisveryimportant
tonote
thatyouwillalso
havevariances
betweenthecountriesand
alwaysconsultyourown

district,et
cetera.

Sointhe
UnitedStates,
copyrightis
aformoflegal
protectionprovided
bythelawsof
theUnitedStatesunder
Title17
oftheUScode

toprotectoriginalworks
ofauthorship.
Andwhilethecopyright
codespecificallysaysauthorship,
thiscouldbeused
torefertoan
author,acreator,and
artist,anyone
whoisspecificallyspeakingand
creatingsomething.
Andit
isimportantithas
tobefixedinatangible
mediumof
expression.Anditsprotectionis
availabletobothpublished

andunpublished
works.

Copyrightableworkscan
includeintellectual
propertysuch
aswebsites,

computercode,
software,databases,
literaryworks,

music,lyrics,
dramaticworks,
paintings,graphicandsculptural
works,motionpictures,and
anynumberofthings.




Justas
importantas
whatiscopyrightiswhatis
notcopyrightable.It couldbe
ideas,facts,
andin
theUnitedStates,federal
governmentworks.

Inother
countries,youwillhave
caseswhere

federalworks
arestill
eligibleforcopyright.Andinindividual
states,state
governmentworks
maystillbeeligible
forcopyright.
Sosome
examplesof
thingsnotcopyrightablewillbe
theorderinyour
phonebook,
whichis
essentiallyjust
alisting
offacts
ofnames,

contactinformation.



Andinmostjurisdictions,
copyrightarises
uponfixation.
Oncesomething's
created,itdoesnot
needtoberegistered.

Sofor
example,thelovelydrawing
ofthefezpigeon

thatyouseehere,
donebymyoldest
sonwhenhewas
five,has
copyright.It'shisoriginal,
uniqueexpression.

Wecould
registerthis
withtheUSCopyright
Officeifwewanted
to,butthatregistration
isnotarequirement
ofcopyright
protection.Butthat
copyrightinthiswork
createdeven
byafive-year-oldisautomaticuponcreation.







Nowcopyright

isasetof
rights,andtheseare
grantedto
theauthororcreator
ofthe
originalwork
orto
theirassignee--soperhaps
toanestate,anotherfamilymember.

Andit'sfora
limitedtime
periodin
exchangefor
theeventual
publicdisclosureoftheir
work,but
whenthatworkmoves
intothepublicdomain.

Copyrightownerscanlicense,

permanentlytransfer,or
assignany
andalloftheir
rightstoothers.Andthecopyright
ownershavetheexclusive
statutoryrights
toexercise
controlover
copyingandotherexploitation
oftheworksforaspecific
amountof
time.And
again,once
thatperiodoftime
haspassed,thenthe
workentersthepublic
domain

The
copyrighttermdurationiswhatdetails

whenworks
areundercopyrightor
whentheyhavemoved
intothepublicdomain.

Copyrightdoesnotlast
indefinitely,thankgoodness,

butapplies
justtothatspecific
time.Andoncethat
termhasexpired,and
theworkhasmoved
intothepublicdomain,
itis
freetobeused,

builtupon,remixedupon
bythe
publicwithouthavingto
seekanyfurtherpermissions.




Iwill
notethatthesestatements
here,thesearevery
broadstatements.
Andto
alwaysrememberthatthere
arealwaysgoingto
besomeexceptionsto
these,butbroadly,if
youlook toworksintheUnitedStates
createdbefore
1923to
beinthepublic
domain.After
1923,the
worksmayormay
notbeinthe
publicdomain,dependingon

compliancewithvariousregistration
andrenewal
andpublicationrequirementsofthecopyrightcodeatdifferent
times.

Further
tolookingatthe
copyrightduration,
youhavetolook
atpublication
andregistrationandwhere
theseregistrationsandreregistration
wererequired
bythecopyrightlaw.
Iftheworkwas
neverpublished,
andtheauthordied
priorto
1949,the
termduration
haslikelyexpired,and
theworkisin
thepublicdomain.Foranidentifiable
authors,youareallowed
toworkscreatedbefore
1893.

IntheUnited
States,the
copyrightterm
broadlyfor
anindividualauthor,creator,
orartist,
liketothelife
ofthat
individual,plus70years.Orinthe
caseofcorporateauthors,
suchas
aninstitutionthatyou
wouldworkfor,for
95years.


Andto
furtheraddanotherlayer
ontothis,120yearsfromthe
dateofcreationif
theworkisanonymous
orwheredeathdate
thatcreatorisunknown.



Afew
additionalthingstoconsider
whenyou're
lookingintothecopyright
termduration,

youlook
atthetypeof
work.Isitarchitectural?
Isit apainting?
Is itabook?Was
publishedornot?Created
byanindividualor
acorporation?Andthe
countryoforigination.

It isimportant
tonotethatwhile
youhavetolook
atthatcountryof
originationwheretheremightbe
differentcopyright
termsandwherethe
creatorlived
andthat,
ifyou're
usingtheworkin
theUnitedStates,and
potentiallylookingat
eitherlicensing
orfairuseof
awork,

thatifsomethingwould
proceedinto
atypeofa
lawsuitor
otherlitigation
intheUnitedStates,
mostlikelyUSlawwouldapply.
Andthat's
whatyouwantto
focuson.

Now,we'llturn
ourattentionalittle
bitandlookat
ourdearfriend,thepublicdomain.

Sothe
publicdomainwillinclude
worksthat
arenolongercovered
bycopyrights,
or acopyrighthasbeen
forfeited.Or
worksthatjustnever
couldhavebeencopyrighted
tobeginwith,such
asfederal
governmentworks.
You couldalso
lookatworksin
thepublicdomain.Maybethosewill
havebeendedicatedby
thecreator
tothe
publicdomain,
suchasthroughthe
useoftheCC0
orpublic
domaindedication

withinCreativeCommonslicensing.

AndIcan'ttalk
aboutthe
publicdomain
withoutnotingmyfavorite
holidayoftheyear.

Someofyoumay
knowitasNew
Year'sDay.
ButJanuary
1is

lovinglypublic
domainday.
Forthe
firstdayofeach
calendaryear,
thenew
groupof
workswith
copyrightexpiring
movesinto
thepublicdomainand
arefreelyavailablefor
anyoneto
usethemforanything.


Reiteration,that'snocopyrightto
federalgovernmentworksintheUnited
States,and
thoseare inthepublicdomain.



Andanissuethat
iseminently
importantformanycultural
institutionstoday

islooking
atthis
conceptof
theslavish
copy.Themanyof
uswithourcollections,

we arecreatingphotographsanddigitalsurrogatesof
theworksinour
collection.Sothese
thingsare2Dworks
originally.Someare
threedimensional.

UnderUScopyright
law,and
basedupon
thecase
ofBridgemanversusCorelin1999,in
theUnitedStates,ithasbeen
deemed,atleastbased
ontheSecondCircuit
courtruling,
accuratetwo
dimensionalreproductionsof
originalworks
donotreceiveanewcopyright.
Sothis
musicnotclaimingcopyright
tothephotographofapainting
inour
collectionsforthesetwodimensional
worksthattherewere
digitalsurrogates.
Theremaystillbe
theopportunity
thata

accuratereproduction
ofan
originallythreedimensionalworkmighthave
itsown
copyright.But
byandlarge,accurate
2Dreproductions
aredeemed
tobeaslavish
copybythecourts--
thatthere
isnot
enoughoriginality
andcreativitytowarrant
anew
copyright.

Few
of
youmayhave
heardofthis--the
CopyrightTermExtensionActfrom1998,

whichmeantthatforthelast

20years

intheUnitedStates,

wedidnothave
anyworks
enteringintothepublic
domain.Thisisthe
actthatextendedthe
copyrightterm
oflifeofthe
creatorto
lifeplus70years
insteadofbeinglife
plus50years.Butthat'sretroactivelyappliedto
worksthatshouldhave

enteredthepublicdomain,

butwere
pulledback
undercopyright.
Thankfully,asofJanuary1stofthis
year,the
UnitedStatesonceagain
isamongthecountries
inthe
worldwith
worksannually
enteringinto
thepublicdomain.Hurrah.





AndIjustwant
topointoutthe
DMCAas
well,quickly.Sothis
isaliabilityexemption
forinternetserviceproviders

inthecasesof
userinfringement.Sothis
isparticularlywithcases
ofwhere


serviceslikeYouTube,Facebook,
orsocial
mediaplatforms
thatweintersectwith,

andother
serviceproviders
willbeableto
utilizeDMCA
aroundallegations
ofcopyright
infringementandbeing

applicableto
them.So
institutionsmaysee
aapplicability
ofDMCA
aswell

withlookingatplacing
imagesofourcollections
online,contributing
toresources

potentiallysuchas

theDPLA
orartstorein
lookingathowthese
differentservice
providersaggregate
content.Sojustone
tobeawareof
am.I'm notgoingto
delvetoodeeplyinto
thattoday.

Next,Iwanttoturn
andtalkalittle
bitaboutorphanworks.

Sowhat
isanorphanwork?

Anorphan
workis
acopyrightedwork.But
it'swhereitscreator
orthe
rightsholder,
eitherunknown,

orit
couldbe
whereyouknowwho
createdthework,but
youcan'tlocatethem.

Youcan'tlocatetheirdescendantsoranestateandhaveno
wayto
actuallycontact
anyonefor
licensing.

Equallyimportantis
whatisnotanorphanwork?


Copyrightedworksto
whichrights
holdersare
known,but
ownershipis
disputedand
worksin
thepublicdomain.There'sanumber
ofways
thatworkcanbecome
orphaned.And
thisisalsowhere
weendupfinding
thatthe
creatoror
authorofthework
ortheir
subsequentestateorrights
holderand
workthemselvesbecomeseparated.

Thiscanhappenwheredescendants
ofaartistdon't
evenrealize
thatcopyright
hastransferredtothem

throughlinesofdescendency.

Couldbefroma
creatorusing
anomdeplume
andnot
beingabletotrack
themback
tothecreatorthemselves.

Changesin
recordkeeping
andchangesincorporate
ownershipwhere

differentcorporations
wouldbeboughtout
bysomeoneelse,and
recordsof
intellectualpropertymay
ormaynottransfer

withthesaleof
thecompanyitself,and
theworkscanthereby
becomeorphaned.


Itisimportantto
notethat
justbecauseawork
becomesanorphan,thatdoesn'tchange
itslegal
copyrightstatus,
andthe
termofprotectionremainsunchanged.

Unlikeproperty
interest,copyright
andother
intellectualpropertyrights
cannotbe
lost,mislaid,
orabandoned.

Andjustbecausethe
workisorphaned,itdoesnot
immediatelybecomepart
ofthepublicdomain.

Copyright
doesnotvestin
anotherpersonifthe
creatorisunknownandcannotbe
found.Soifsomebody
comesoutofthe
woodwork,thereneedsto
bealotof
backtrackingdeterminationto
findoutifthey
trulyare
apotential
rightsholderofanorphanedwork.





Next,I'mgoingto
turntotalkingabout
someexceptions
andexemptionswithinUScopyrightlaw.
I'mgoing
totalkabouta
fewoftheseacross
differentareas
andtheirapplicabilitytomuseums,
libraries,galleries,andarchives.

First,
firstsale,
thepublicdisplayexception.
Andthisisreally
whatcomesdownto,
thatthisiswhat
allowsmuseums

andgalleries
andlibraries
andallofour
culturalinstitutions
tobe
abletoactuallyexhibit
anddisplayworksin
ourcollectionswithouthaving
toseek
acopyright
permissionorlicense
everytime
wewanttoput
thoseworksondisplay.


Canweimaginethe
headaches,asidefrom
loanagreements,ifwe
hadtoalsoseek
thosepermissions
forjust
usesofourown
collectionsonaregularbasis?



Theclassroomuseexemption,thisis
where it comesbackto
theidea
ofteaching
withusing
ourcollectionsona
dailybasisandhow
thosecopyanduses
areput
intoplace.




Theparallel
withthis
aswell,
lookingattheTEACH
Act.And
thisis
allowedfor
distanceeducation,
books,and
anyutilizationofthose
worksandhavecopyrighted
workscanbeutilized
withinthem.



I'mgoing tospendafew
slidesheretoactually
talkaboutsomeof
thevariouslibraryexceptionsundersection
one108
ofthe
USCopyright
code.Andabig
partofwhyI
wanttoactuallyfocus
onsection108is
thatthisisactually
anarea
thattheUSCopyright
Officehas
beenlookingatvery
closelyoverthelast
coupleofyears.And
it'sbeenpendingchanges

tosection108toformallyadd
museumsunder
thisexception.

Sothose
ofyou
comingfrommuseums,staytuned.Hopefully,
someoftheseexceptions
insection108will
beexpanded
tonot
justinclude
activitiesoflibrariesandarchives,
butto
alsoinclude

museums.So
thisissomethingthat
currentlyfor
librariesin
archives.Youmustbe
opentothepublic
andare
availabletoberesearched.

Andwherethis
doesnotapplycurrently
tomuseum
isall
ofmuseums
mayhave
alibrary

and/orandarchivewithintheirinstitutions.

Themuseum
doesnotfallunder
section108justfor
thesakethatit
happenstohavelibrary
and/orarchive.
Onlyspecifically,withthe
library,the
archivesbecoveredby
Section108.

Somany
workscurrentlydonot
qualify.

But
section108,

asitclearlystands
forlibrariesandarchives,
isa
wonderfulresource
andis
what'sallowed


librariesandarchivesto
create,to
distributemultiplecopies,
tolend,

tohave
reproductionequipmentavailable,copyrightmachines
availablefor
patronsto
utilize,as
whereyou'llalwayssee
thenoticebyany
ofthecopymachine

inalibraryaswell.

Itallowslibraries
toshare
copiesacross
libraries,sothings
likeyourinterlibraryloans.Andinsuch
aggregatedquantitiesthat

librariesare
notusing
ILLas
asubstituteforactually
purchasingtheworkthemselvesfortheirowncollection
orfor
subscribingto
ajournal
themselves.

Theability
undersection
108forlibrariestocreateconservation,
security,orreplacementcopies.Currently
limitedtothreecopies
forthosepurposeswould
beimmenselyhelpfultothosein
themuseumworld,particularlyforthose
ofus
startingtodealmore
andmore
withtime-basedmediamaterials

andother
borndigitalmaterialthat
currentlywe
havenoexceptioninthecopyright
lawthatallowsus
tocreate
copiesoftheseworks

forthepurposesofpreservationorsecurityorreplacement.
Sorightnow,theonlyway
thatamuseumisableto
createa
copyforoneof
thosepurposes
isthrough
somesortofa
contractwith
thatcopyrightholderto
beginwith.




Next,we'llturn
ourattention
totalking
aboutfairuse.One of theexceptions
thatmany
ofyouaremore
familiarwith
inthecopyrightcode,


thefairuseofacopyrighted
work,includingsuchuse
byreproductionsandcopies
orphonerecordsorbyany
othermeansspecifiedby
thatsection
forpurposes
suchascriticism,comment,news
reporting,teaching,includingmultiplecopies
forclassroomuse,scholarship,
orresearch.
Andthis
istheimportantpart,
isnot

aninfringement
ofcopyright.
Itsayssoright
thereinthecode.



Yes,despiteit
sayingrighttherein
thecode
thatitisnot
aninfringement,
whendo
weuseit?How
canweuseit?

Solooking
atthingswherewecanhave

commentary,parody,limitededucationaluses,non-commercial,
tomaybeevenbe
caseswheresomethingis
moreconsideredmoreof
acommerciallybecauseit's
still
potentiallyalsobe
afairuse.Determining
fairuseisbroadly
lookedatunderwhat
isknownasthe
4factortest.

So welookatthepurposeand
characteroftheuse,

theoriginalnatureof
thecopyrighteduse,the
amountandsubstantialityoftheworkused,
andtheeffectof
theuseuponthe
work.Itisimportant
tonotethatwhile
therearethesefour
factorsthat
courtswill
lookto
infairusecases,



thatinorderto
passafairuse,
youdo
nothavetomeet
allfourfactors.You
don'tevenhaveto
meetthree
outof
thefour.
Itis
howeachisweighed
andlook
iftheyareassessedindividuallyandthenweighedtogether

tomakea fair usedetermination.

Andmorerecently,

[? Sir ?][?
Judge ?]
[? Lebald ?]introduced
whatisnowalmostconsideredafifth
factor.It's
thetransformative
use,or
asmy7-year-oldlikestocallit,
thetransformeruse.IthinkI
almostliketheidea
isthatwecan
takesomethingandtransform
itbetter.

Butthis
conceptof
transformative,thatyouhavetaken
something,and
you'veadded
toit,
thatthere'ssomethingnew
andvalueadded.Andthatyou
haven'tusedmorethan
wasnecessaryofthe
originalwork
toachieve
thatcase.

Wherethisreallycomesout
isinthecase
ofRogersv.Koons.
Sointhiscase,
andyou'veseentheimagehere

thatJeff
Koonscreated
asculpture

basedonthisphotograph
thathe'dseenby[INAUDIBLE].And


Koonsbasicallytookthe
entirephotograph
tocreate

thissculpture.

Andofcourse,
thiswasnot--thiswasnot
afairuse.This
was--he
didn'ttransform
itenough.He didn'tchange
itenough
thathe
reallytook
almostverbatim,
thateven
justchangingitfrom
beinga
twodimensionalphotographtoathreedimensional
sculpture,thatwasn't
enough.Hedidn'ttransform
itenough.


Transformativeusecomes
inalotwhen
youstartlookingat
casesofappropriationart.There
youhaveexamplesfrom
Cariouv.Prince,
thecases
in2011and2013.



DidPrincetransformtheseenoughtomakethem
different?Someof
them,yes.
Somethem,
no.Itwasa
interestingcasewhere
notallofthe
worksin
thecaseweredeemed
tobeafair
use.And
ifmemory
serves,Ibelieveit
was
fiveofthe remainderand
notconsider
afairuse.

Anadditionalpointfor

theglam
factorin
anyculturalinstitutionto
looktofromthese
caseswith
thepotentialliabilityof
displayand
distributionsthatthe

gallerydisplaying
Prince'swork

wasalsosuedfor
copyrightinfringementbyCariou

inthis
case.So
somethingformuseumstothinkabout,
thatwhen
wearelookingat
displayingworksbyappropriationartists,whattypeof
riskandliabilityare
wealsopotentiallytakingon
bydisplaying
thoseworks?







Steppingalittleoutsideof

copyright,specifically,I'm
going totalk
brieflyaboutprivacyandpublicityand
wheretheseintersectwith
usesofcopyrightedmaterials.So
therightofprivacy,
sosomeofyou
maybemorefamiliar
withthis,
especiallyrecently,with


allof
therecent
newsinthelast
yearcoming
outoftheEU

withthe
GeneralDataProtectionRegulationortheGDPR




lookingat
howdata

andthe
righttoprivacyisprotected.Andnot
justlooking
atsomeone'slikenessortheirvoice,

butalsoextendingto
data.

Thesimplestway
tothinkofthe
rightofprivacyis
quitesimplytheright
tobeleftalone.

Andthis
is aphrasethatwas
coinedbythenattorney
SamuelWarren

andeventuallyJusticeBrandeis
inthe
1890Harvard
LawReview.And
therighttoprivacy
issummed
upin
fourpoints--

anunreasonableintrusionofpersonalsolitude,
publicdisclosure
oftrue,
butembarrassingprivatefacts,

falserights,
orthe
appropriationofsomeone's
nameandlikeness.

Coincidingwiththe
rightofprivacyis
therightofpublicity.

Andthis
rightof
publicityistheright
tocontrolthecommercial
exploitationofaperson'sname,
likeness,or
voice.In
theUnitedStates,therightof
publicityitisgovernedbystate
law.It
isnotafederal
law.Anddependingon
thestate,theright
ofpublicitymayor
maynotextendbeyond
theperson'sdeath.Sowhileright
ofprivacy
willend
withaperson'sdeath

forsure,
theright
ofpublicity,particularlywithapublicfigure,

mayextend
beyondtheir
life.

SoVARA,theVisualArtists
RightsAct.
Inthe
UnitedStates,
VARAis

theclosest

thatwegettotheEuropean
andother

countries'conceptofmoralrights.
Butit
isnotexactlymoralrightto
thesameconceptandtothe
samedegreethatyou
seein
theEU
andin
theUK.



VARAgrantsartists
therighttoclaim
authorshipoftheir
work.They
canalsopreventthe
useoftheirname
intheeventof
adistortionormutilation
ofawork.And
whichalso
meansthattheartist
hastheright,not
onlycantheyclaim
authorship,thatyou
willsee artistsrecently

disavowingtheirworks
andnow
saying,nope,
thatisnolonger
mywork.

Mostrecently,this
actuallycameoutinaRichard
Prince--he
comesupalot

inthe
copyrightcases.

ButRichard
Princerecently
disavowedaphotographfromhis
Instagramseries.

Therewasaphotograph
ofIvanka
Trump,that
IvankaTrumps
own.Andshewas
talkingabout
owningthis
photograph.AndRichardPrincecame
outandsaidthat
itisactuallynot
aRichard
Princephotograph,despiteher
havingboughtitfrom
hisgallery
representation.Andso
acase where theartist
has
cominginnow
isdisavowing
thatthey
createdthatworkto
beginwith.


VARAalsoprevents
intentionaldistortion,mutilation,
ormodification
oftheartist'swork

andalsopreventsadestructionofthat
work.So
beforeVARA,
oressentially
pre-1990,the
owners,not
theartists
hadcontrol
oftheworks,which
meansthatin1989,

RichardSerra
hadno
recourseavailable
tohim
whentiltedartwascutinto
threepieces
anddismantled.



AfterVARA,or
post-1990,nowtheartist,nottheowners
havecomplete
controloftheirworks,




whichmeans
thatin2017,whenFearlessGirlwasplacedto
facethechargingbull,


thatclaims
ofintent
andchanging
themessage
thatithadsomehow
mutilatedhisworkor
hurthisreputation,thathe
couldbring
thatsuit
againstKristen
Visbal.And
thisisawork
thatcontinues

tofacelitigation,thatrecently

Visbalnow
hasbeen--


hadlegal
actionbrought
againstherofall
thingsbythecompany
thatoriginally
commissionedFearlessGirl
fromher.

Andthis--I
willjustpointout
asawordof
cautiontoalwayslook
atyour
contractsand
licensesand
lookat
howtherightsandownershipare
outlined.Thatthiswas
a case
where

althoughVisbalcreatedthe
work,hardtonot

delvecompletelyintoany
ofthecontractsor
whatisavailableabout
thecase,
butshe's
beenselling
reproductionsinvariousversionsof
thework.
Andthe
companyissayingthat
shedoesn'tholdthe
intellectualpropertyto
it,thattheyhold
therights
that,andshecan't
becreatingthesereproductions
ofherownwork.

Again,it
goesbacktoan
interpretationandbeing
reallycarefulofwhat
yourcontract
languageactually
says.

Now,
I'mgoingtoput
youallonthe
spotalittlebit,

foralittlebit
ofaquizandseehow
muchyou'vebeenpaying
attention.Fora
worktobecopyrightable,
ithas
multiplerequirements
including,meetstheoriginalityrequirements?Isfixedin
tangiblemedium?
Isasourceof
consumerconfusion?
Andthat
itssubjectmatteris
copyrightable?

Theanswer
maybemorethan
one.Easy.


OK.Most
ofyoudidvery
well,excellentjob.So
forworksto becopyrighted,
ithas tomeetA,B,andD.

Consumerconfusion
issomething
thatactuallycomesin
undertrademark
law,a
differentform
ofintellectualproperty.

Number2,what
aretheexclusiverights
ofthe
copyrightowner?

Todistributethework
incopies
tothepublic?Todisplaythe
workpublicly?
Preparederivative
works?Reproduce
theworkincopies?


Performtheworkpublicly?

Orallofthe
above?Welldone,allofthe
above.

17
U.S.C.Section
107states
thatfor
thepurposes
suchascriticism,comment,newsreportingteaching,

includingmultiple
copiesforclassroomuse,
and
scholarshiporresearch
isnot
aninfringementofcopyrights.
Idon'tevenneed
toreadthroughthese.
You guysgotthatone,
welldone.
Fairuse,that'sright.




Lastquizquestion
righthereforyou.

DoestheUnitedStates
haveastatuteversion
ofEurope's
moralrightslaws?Rememberthedisclaimer
thatIgaveat
thebeginning
whenIfirststarted
talkingaboutVARA.Yep,it'sa
little
bitofa
trickquestion.

SowhiletheVisual
ArtistsRightsActdoes

providesome

elementsof
moralrights
protectionstoartists
intheUnitedStates,

itisnotexactly
astatutoryversionofEurope'smoral
rightlaws.
It'sclose,
butit
doesnotactuallyexist
asa
wholemoral
rightsprovisions.




Allright,so
nowI'mgoingto
delvea
littlebitintoalittlebit
morepractical
applicationsof
someofthecopyright
statuteand
howweputintopracticalapplicationindealing
withcopyright

ona
dailybasis
workingin
culturalinstitutions.Sofirst,
determiningtheright
status.And
forbetterorfor
worse,because
ofallofthe
thingsthatwetalked
about
andthingslike

theTermExtensionAct
andhowcopyrightlaws
changedin
termsofextended,there
areso
manydifferent
exemptionsandways
inhow
longcopyright
canlast.

Sowe're
areallverylucky

becauseawonderfulman
namedPeterHirtleannually
updateshis
copyrightterm
inthepublicdomain
intheUnitedStates
chartatCornell.Itwillbe
hereavailableonlinethrough
Cornell'scopyright
informationcenter.Theirentirewebsite
isa
wonderfulresource.
Iwould
highlyrecommend
spendingsometimethere
andlookingatwhat
theyhave.

Butinparticular,lookat
thecopyrighttermin
thepublicdomainin
theUnited
Stateschart.
Thischartwilltake
youthrough
avariety
ofdifferent
typesofworks.Theworksin
the bookpublished,neverregistered,
firstpublished
intheunitedstates,

architecturalworks,really
coversthe
gambitofthedifferent
typesofworks, theaudiovisualworks,music,film.

Itreally
has--so
youcanstartbreaking
downandlookingthrough
allofthese,looking
atwas
itcreated
in1923,after1923?

Wheredoesitfall
with120
yearmarkforcorporate
authorship?Ithelps
youwalkthroughthat
chart.

Now,
I'mgoingto gothrough

whatare
somereally,reallysuper
broadstrokes


thatmostofus
workingin
culturalinstitutions--wedo
nothavetheluxury

ofhaving
thesestats

orthe
timetogothrough
anddo
copyrightdeterminationandanalysis
ona
step,onanitem-level
basisand
takeeach
individualworkstep
bystepthroughthesecopyrightdeterminations.
I'mgoing
tohitafew

reallybroadstrokeshere.

Alot
ofthe

broadterminationsandsome
ofthestopsthat
I'mgoingtobe
goingthroughinthe
comingslides
areexcerpts
fromRights
andReproduction:TheHandbookforCulturalInstitutions

nowavailablethroughRowman
&Littlefieldinits

secondedition--
littleside
plugforyouthere.

Butessentially,youwant
tolookatthat
forthesebroadterminations,
youwanttofirst
belookingatyour
workand
assumeall
worksby
asinglecreatorare
eitherunpublished

orunregistered.

Second,lookatworksby
livingcreators

orcreators
whodiedwithinthe
past70yearswill
beundercopyrighttothelife
ofthatcreatorplus
70years.

Justareminder,these
determinationsarebased
onUScopyrightlaw.
Soagain,justto
thecopyright

termfor
yourspecific
countrywhere
itmightbelife
plus50yearsor
lifeplus70.

Three,
worksbyanonymouscreators.

Orincaseswhere
thecreator'sdeathdate
isunknown,

worksmadeforhire,

andyour
corporateworks,

thatthoseworkswill
beundercopyrightfor
120years
fromthe
dateoftheircreation.





Andof
course,remember,

allof
thevarious
exceptionsthatwetalkedabout
earlier,inparticularlythatUSgovernment,federalworkersdonot
receivethat
copyrightprotection.

Youwant
toalsobelooking
atmakingthesedeterminations,
specificallylookingatthatfirst
timethat
awork waspublished.

Makingthatdeterminationcanbe
alotofadditional
research.You
mayormaynot
havetheluxuryofbeingable
tofind
aspecificregistrationstatusor
publicationstatus.But
ifyou'reableto,
youcan dosomeofthatresearchthrough
theUSCopyrightOffice

inperson.

Andthey'reworkingon
makingmoreofthat
searchableandavailable
onlineaswell.

The
nextstepisidentifying
thecopyright
holder.And
thiscouldbein
anumberofplaces.

Soyou
wantto
beabletosit
andstart
lookingat
worksand
lookingattheactual
workitself.
Solookatyour
painting,look
atthebook.Is
thereacopyrightnotice
onit?
Dosome
backgroundresearchon
thecreator.

Checkyourinstitutional
records,look
throughhistorical
filesthatyourregistrar
mighthave,
lookthrough
curatorialworks,look
throughpurchaserecords,lookthroughrecords
andpressevenfrom
yourdevelopmentoffice,libraries,yourarchival
recordsthat
mighthavesomeguidance
towhoownsthat
copyright.Dealwith
accuratedatabases.
Sothingssuchas

theArtistsRightsSociety

ortheWatchFile
outof
theHarryRansomCenter.




Mindtheweb.

Anumber
of,times
inparticularly
withmoreactiveartists
andauthors
workingtoday,
manywill
havea
website.Andyoucan
oftenfindcontactinformation
there.Confer
withyourcolleagues.Listserves
areinaninvaluable
waytobeable
totrackdowncopyrightinformation,andevaluatepriorities.

Areyougoingto
gostep
bystep
andassess
everywork
inacollection?Or
isidentifying
arightsholdergoing
tobebasedon
aspecific
use?Are
yougoingtobe
inpreparationfora
specificexhibitionora
publicationthat'supcoming

versusa
startat
thefirst
accessionnumberandwork
yourwayallthe
waythrough?




Inadditiontoconsidering
justthecopyrightandtheIP

withintheworks,you
alsohavetostart
thinkingabout
thattherecouldbe
otherintellectual
propertyconsiderationsasidefrom
justthecopyrightwhen
you'relookingfora
rightsholder.
Youcould
belookingforthe
copyrightholder.
Youmayalsobe
lookingat
potentiallysomebodyholding
trademarkrights,
theprivacy
andpublicitythatwe
talkedabout,
lookingat
theworkaspublic
domainor
not,ifyou'regoing
tobelookingto
licensesomething,orif
you'regoingtopotentially
bemakingafair
useanalysis.
Andimportantly
you want toalsolook
atis
thisawork thatpotential
hasunderlyingrights?

And
whenwe
talkaboutunderlyingrights,this
willbe
somethingwhereperhapsit's,
say,an
AlfredStieglitz
photograph.Mostof
AlfredStieglitz'sphotographsarenowinthe
publicdomain.

butit'sanAlfred
Stieglitzphotograph
ofGeorgiaO'Keeffewith
oneofherartworks.



Doyourelyon
publicdomainforthe
entiretyofthephotograph?
Orhow
doyoualsoconsider
thecopyright

toGerogia
O'Keefe'spainting
thatappears
withinthatphotograph?

Youcouldhavemultiple
layersthathaveto
belicensed.

Inadditionthento
notonly
havingher
artworkin
copyrightasanunderlying
right,youmayalso
haveherunderlyingrightofpublicitywith
herlikenessreproducedinthatphotographaswell.
Sojustrememberingthattherecouldbe
multiplelayers
toconsider

whenlicensing
ordoing
afairuseanalysis.


There'salsoa
numberof,
whatIreferto
asother,
considerationswhenmakingtheserights
determinations.Butthesearenot
strictlycopyright
orintellectual
propertyconsiderations,butmay
alsoneedtobe
takenintoconsiderationwhenreviewing

arightsholderand
its
licensingoffair
usewill
beconsidered.So[INAUDIBLE]
workbyindigenouspeoples,therepresentationsofobscenityorviolence
orotherwise
sensitivematerial.

Perhapsyouhave
creatorrestrictionsordonor
restrictionsthatperhaps

couldguide
howsomethingisutilized
ornot.Butthere
aresecurityconcernsorotherinteractions
andhowsomethingis

usedthatyouwant
tobeawareof
whenlookingatlicensing
ornot.

Andofcourse,any
ofthosecontractualrestrictionsissomeof
whichwe'vetalkedabout
before.

Helpingtoguide
usalittlebit
inthisdirectionissomethingcalled
rightsstatements.

RightsStatements.org
isa
jointproductthatcame
outoftheDPLA
inEuropeana.
Andthis
issomething
thatwasformedthat
afterthe
DigitalPublicLibraryof
Americalaunched

inworkingwiththeir
partnerswith
Europeana.Thatreally
startingtolookat
itandgo,huh,

theystarted
lookingatallthe
metadatafieldsandthe
contentrepresentedintheir
databasesandrealizedit
wastherightfield
thathad

themost

variationsandthe
mostcontent,
andtherewasno
consistency.

SoRightsStatements.orgisa
projecttotryto

clarifythelanguagethat
thoseinculturalinstitutions
utilizedto
talkabout
thecopyright
statusoftheworks
intheircollections.Sothey
broadlycreatedthesethree
categoriesof,in
copyright,nocopyright,
orother.
Andwithin
thesethree
categories,thereare12rightsstatementsthatcan
beattached
andutilizedonindividual
works.

Trying
togetitso
thatin
aninternationalcontext,those
incultural

institutionscanbe
utilizingthe
sametypeoflanguage

fortheir
rightsand
howthey'redeterminingindateuse.So
thatfrom
onecountrytoanother,
they'reabletoactually

lookat
whatthat
rightsdeterminedstatementis
andhow
theycan
potentiallyinterpretwhat
thatrightsstatementmeans
tothem.




Thisdocument
herecreated
bytheMinnesotaDigital
Libraryis
justanamazingworkflow

forlookingatapplying

rightstatementstoworksinour
collections.

Iwouldhighlyrecommend
thatyoulookat
this.Ithelpsyou
walkthrough

differentdocuments
andcollectiontypesthat
youmighthaveanddifferentworking
byhavingyourcollections
andwalks
youthrough
howand
whereyoumaybe
abletoapplydifferent
statementsfromRightsStatements.org.

Don'tworryabouttrying
towritedownthe
linkhere.Wegotitin
thecopyrighthandoutfor
youto
beabletoreference.

Butthatit
takesyouthroughlooking
atfor
agovernmentdocument,is
itafederalgovernment
document?Something
createdbytheUS
federalgovernment.Is itcreated
bystategovernmentor alocalgovernmentandwhere
thosedelineationsandrights
maychange.
SoI
realizeyouprobably can'treaditatall
onthescreenhere,
butI
highlyencouragethatyou
lookatthisandcheckit
outlaterinyour
owntime.




Soparallel
totherightstatements
aregoingtobe
licenses.And
withlicenses,

hopefullyyouwillhave
beenluckyenoughthat
you'vegonethrough,you've
beenabletodo
acopyright
analysis,makearights
determination.You'vebeen
abletotrackdown
acopyright
holderandpotentiallybelookingatlicensing.
Oryoumightbe
havingtolookat
thatper useanalysis.

Butifyou
arelookingata
potentiallicensing
situation,thenyou
mightbeinan
opportunitytobe
abletosendout
anon-exclusivelicense.And
so
anon-exclusivelicense
canbesomethingthat
isunbelievablyinvaluablethatyoucansend
outtotherights
holder,thattheywork
orworksinyour
collectionbythem.
Theywon't
justnot
necessarilytransfertheirrightstoyourinstitution,
butwill
grantyounon-exclusiveusefora

predeterminedlistof
uses.

Examples

shownhere


fortheIndianapolisMuseumofArtat
Newfields.We
broadlyhave
fornon-exclusivelicenses,includes
almostanyusewiththeexception
ofcreating
retailproducts

whichwouldbenegotiated
separately.Andthis
couldreallysavea
lotoftimedown
theline.Butif
you'reabletoget
anon-exclusivelicensereturn,

thenyou'reableto
potentiallylookat

utilizingworksbythis
personwithouthavingto
gobacktothem
timeandtime andagain.


Youmay
alsofindsomeof
theselicenses
amongcommissioncontracts,andwhereyou'regoing
tooutline
andbe
notingwhat
licenseis
givento
theinstitutionversuswhat
rightstheartistretains
inthe
workthat'screated.

So
I'mgoing
togothroughthe
nexthandful
ofslides
prettyquickly.

Justyoucanalways
gobacktothese
later.Iknowthat
Susanwill
makeallofthe
slidesfromtodayavailable
later.Sotheseare
reallygoingtobe
thelicense
elementsandthevarious
piecesthatyouwould
wanttohavewhen
youarecreatinga
license,whether
it'sin
anon-exclusive
oraspartof
aoverallcontractforsomethingelse
that'sbeingdone.But
wantingtogothrough
andmakesurethat
allofthisinformation
iscaptured
inoutline

becauseattheend
oftheday,when
you'relookingatthe
contracts,andby
legalstandards,theyare
goingtobelooking
atthedocumentitself
andwhatisin
writing,what
iswithinthefour
cornersof
thatpieceofpaper.

Sofor
thesakeoftime,
andIknowthat
Iseethegrowing
listof
questionspopping
up,soIwant
tomakesurethat
wehaveplentyof
timetoaddressthose
questions.SoI'm
goingtomovethrough
theseprettyquickly.But
youwant
tohavetheparties
identified,whatthe
materialis
thatyou'regoingto
belicensing.
Sowhether
that'soneobjectin
yourcollectionoran
entiregroup
ofarchivalmaterials.

Whoowns
thematerials?Andwho
willbe--
istheownershiptransferring
inthose
materialsor
not?And
thenwhatrightsare
granted?Aretheyexclusive?
Ortheynotexclusive?

Isitirrevocable?Isit
revocable?Whatthose
rightsincluded
withinthatbundleof
rightsthatwetalked
aboutatthebeginning
oftoday's
webinarwithincopyright.Arethere
arethereanylimitations
orrestrictionsonthose
uses?And
outliningas
manyoftheseuses
upfront
asyou
can,that
It'salways
easiertoaskonce
fora
lotofthingsthan
tohavetokeep
comingbackadozen
times,adding
ontothatlicense.


Wantingtolook
athowit'sused?
Whatit's
territoryis?

Howyou'regoingto
measurethat
use?Arethereother
elementstoconsiderwithin
amedium?

You'regoing towant
tolook atwhatwhatterm is.Isitsomethingthat'sgoing
tobe
inprint?Isit
somethingthat'sdigitallybased?

Arewe
lookingatadefined
numberofyears?A
specificprintrun,perhaps?
Oris
itsomethingthat'sin
perpetuity?

I want toespecially
besuretonote
aswellasthe
individualuses,belookingat
thecreditlinesin
thecopyrightnoticeand
howthat
distributionisseen

comingthroughwithany
oftheuses.Of
course,ifthere'sany
feesintheexchange
oflicense,

you want tomakesurethatthat
isstated.

Thisgetsintowhat
alot
ofpeoplereferto
asthelegaluse
oftheselicenses,butthey'revery
important.

Sowanting
tolook
atyourwarrantiesandrepresentations
thatthe
creatorwants,

yes,thatfurtherto
anyotherinformation,whatthey'restatingthat,yes,they
weren't--theyholdthe
rightsto this.They

areabletoactually

grantthe
licensethat
youare
seekingfromthem.Anylimitationstoliabilityareindemnification
thatyouperhapscould
belookingat,and
thenofcoursethe
signatures,andwhether
thatissomethingthat
you'relookingat--physicalsignatureson
printeddocuments,electronicsignatures,orperhapseven
lookingthroughaquick-to-agree
documentation.

Otherformsoflicenses
thatyou
mightenduputilizing
withculturalcollectionmightbe
someCreativeCommonslicenses.






AndsoCreativeCommons
isreallyallabout
thatideas,
share,remix,reuseand
howworks
canbe
identified.CreativeCommonslicensesarejustthat.

Theyaretype
of alicense.
It'snot
agrantofa
specificright.It'snot
atransferofrights,
butitisa
licenseto
awork.
Youmight
havebeen
hearingmoreandmore
aboutcultural
institutionsreleasingtheir

imagesof
worksintheircollections,
particularlypublicdomain
works,under
openaccess
andperhaps
attachingCreativeCommonslicenses
tothose.Orperhaps
theirreusingmetadatato
theircollectionsundera
CreativeCommonslicense.

Most
often,you're
goingtoseethem

releasingthese
itemsfrom
theircollectionsunderone
ofthefirsttwo
licensesthat
youseehere.Soeitherthat
publicdomainmarkwhere
there'snoknowncopyright

orthe
CC0mark
bywhich
itweighsallrights
andplacesthework
intothepublicdomain.


I'veseenalittlebit
ofcollections
usingthosemostrecently
withthe
Metand theCleveland
MuseumofArtand
oftheircollectionsforopenaccessand
partneringwithCreativeCommonsfor
this.That
alarge
reasonwhyIknow
thatthe
Metwent
andused
CC0morethanthey
usethepublicdomain
markwasthatitwasessentially
sayingthat

becausetherewillalways
becaseswhereyou
mightfeelprettystrongly
that,yes,thiswork
isinthepublic
domain,but
theremight
bearegionsomewhere
wherethatworkmaybe
isnotinthe
publicdomain.Orhaving
todoadditionalresearchcould
endupfindingthat
maybeitactuallyisn't
inthepublicdomain.
Orperhaps
commerciallytheworkthat
youthoughtwasunder
copyrightmightactuallybe
inthepublicdomain
becauseitdidn'tcomply
withreregistrationthatwas
requiredat
thetime
whenitwascreated
orsomething.

Soinstead
oflooking ausingthatCC0
licensethat

essentiallythatthen

MetinCMAutilizingthat,they
aresayingthatthey'renotclaiming
anyrights
totheir
digitalsurrogateofthe
imageofthatartwork
created.So
again,goingbackto
thatideaforBridgeman
versusCorelwith
nonew
copyrightin
thatslavishreproduction,andthat
throughtheuseof
CC0,they're
statingthey'renotclaiming
anyrightstothat
image.And
theyareplacingit
intothepublicdomain
tothebestof
theirknowledge.







Andthelastlittlebit
thatIamgoing
toreviewtodayis
actuallyputtingfairuse

intouse.






Now,remember,
fairuse
isgoingtocome
intoplaywhenwe're
potentiallylookingat
scholarship,research,education,
commentary,criticism,recording,
andnon-commercial
usesfor
themostpart.Indeterminingfairuse,
wegobackto
thatideaofthe
fourfactors
plustransformativenessintrying
tofigure
thisout.

Andunfortunately,fairuseis
anythingbut
blackandwhite.It's
notaneasytick
boxtosay,cool,wemeet
onethroughfour,and
we'vemet
allatthese,so
it'safairuse.
Instead,it's
really,a
continuum.And
eachfactor
hasto
beweighted
andassessed
onthespectrumto
seeare
youfavoring
moreontheedge
ofbeingmorelike
fairuse?
Orisitless
likelythatitcould
beconsideredafair
use,andyoumight
needtoconsidera
license?

Luckily,
forall
ofus,
wehave
alot
ofwonderful
professionalorganizationsthat
haveputoutan
amazingslew

ofstatementsandcodes
andguidelinestoguide

thoseofusworking
inglam
institutionswiththe
useoffairuse.
Manyoftheseare
includedinthehandout
materials,soI
highlyrecommend
thatyou
takea
lookatthese.They
canreallyhelpguide


whenandhowyou
canpotentially
utilizefairuseand
howyoucanmake
someofthesedeterminations.

Iwilljustput
outawordof
caution.That
althoughyoumighthave
timeswhere

youthinkyouhave
areallygreatopportunity
forfairuse,sometimes
youmaystillneed
tolookalicense.
Andsometimesit'sabout
maintainingrelationships.Soforthe
IndianapolisMuseumof
Art,whenwe,about
ayearanda
halfago,
rebrandedour
overallcampus

theNewfields,

newlogo,
newname.

Andwewent,youknow
what?Ourdesignersandourmarketing
teamreally
loveourSol LeWittwall,and
theywantedtouse
thedetail
ofit
withinournewlogo.


I'mpretty
sureIwentand
hidundermydesk
atthatpoint,going,
oh,the
headacheandthework
thatwasgoingto
entail.And
marketingteamwaslike,
oh,it'ssodetailed.
It'sgoingtobe
forsuchgreatexposure
forSol LeWitt.

And
I'msittingtheregoing,

that'sgoingtobe
pureoneverythingandtryingtomaintain
agood
workingrelationshipwiththe
followertosay.So
we
reachedoutto
themtolookat
licensingthis.

Wegot
verylucky
with[INAUDIBLE]

Sol LeWitt estate
wasactuallythrilledto
bepartofour
newbranding
andtobeutilized
inthismannerand
actuallygrantedusalicensefor
this.

And
thatformostof
it,theyactuallygranted
itatnocost
tousaswell,
whichwasquiteshocking.

Butit
wasaboutmaintainingthatrelationship.Butsometimes
you'regoingtobe
seekingpermission
forplaceswhereyou
maybeyou'rethinkingyou
mighthaveanopportunity
forfairuse.Maybeyoudon't.
Maybeyoudon't,butyou'remaintaining
thatrelationship.

Anotherexampleofthisfor
usiswithour
RoyLichtensteinsculptureFive
Brushstrokesonour

large[INAUDIBLE]
infrontofthe
museumon
ourcampus.

Andso

verystrongbeliefthat
placingimagesofworks
inourcollectiononourwebsitestobeable
tohighlighttheworks
in our

collectionisa
fairuse.
Thisissomethingthe
imageof
FiveBrushstrokesonour
website.We
standbythat,that
it'sfairuse.We
didnotlicenseanything
fromtheLichtensteinFoundation.

Yet,whenwe
putoutanew
bookabout
Newfieldand
ourartandnature
collections,andwe
hadimages
ofFiveBrushstrokesthatwouldappearinsidethebook,
asyouseeon
theleftherewith
interiorreproduction,

it'sprobably
afairuse.Howeverthen,when
wegot
someinitialdesignproofs
backfrom

ourdesigners,
andthey
wantedtousethe
Lichtenstein
signonthe
coverofthebook,


thatstartedtochange
thingsalittlebit.
Butthenatthat
point,notonlywas
itjust
tyinginto
thecollectionsandbehowitinthe
contextof
that,but
nowasthecover
ofthebook,it
startswalking
thatborderlineofmaybe
beinga little morecommercial
andmarketinginits
use.

Sowereached
outto
theLichtenstein
Foundationforthis.
Andagainsimilarexperience
thatwehadwith
LeWittFoundation,theywere
actuallyquitethrilledto
befeatured
andbepartof
thisbookandbe
featuredonthecover.

Andinlieuof
alicensing
feethat
wemayormay
nothavehadtheabilityto
pay,theyactuallyjust
askedfor

alargernumberof

gratiscopies
ofthepublicationtobesentto
themsotheycould
providecopies
totheir
entireboard,
whichwe
werehappytodo
becauseshippingthemextracopiesofthebook
wasso

exponentiallylessexpensivethanhaving
topayalarge
licensingfee.



AndIwilljustalso
pointoutthatsometimes
youmight
havethisreallygreat
idea.And
itissoclearly
hasthe
potentialtobea
fairusethatit's
perhapssomething
ataninstitutionforanexhibition.Andit's

ingalleries.
It'scontextualizing.It'stalkingaboutthe
work.Andthisis
somethingthat
youfeel
reallystronglyispotentially
afairuse.

However,
sometimesthe

individualthatyou
alsoneedtolicense
animagefilefrom

happensto
alsobethecopyright
holder.Sowehad
thatinthiscase
herewhere
withthis
lovelyphotographthatwe
wantedtobeable
toreproduce
inanexhibition.And
theonly

waythatwecould
getanimagefile
largeenough
forour
needsof
enlargingthephotographtoputona
wallandhaveit
enlargedto9by
12feet
wasfromthephotographer
himself.

And
sowe
workedwithhimveryclosely,and
wedidpaya
licensingfee

tohim.
Butinthiscase,
itwasnotas
muchofitbeing
alicensing
feespecifically
forthecopyright.Although,it
wasgetting
thefilefromthe--

whohappenedtobe
alsothecopyrightholder,
butthis
isalso
sometimesitisan
imageaccess
feethatyou'repaying
foraccess
tothat
reallylarge
originalimagefile.Again,
justthatreminder,that
fairuseisprobably
notgoingtocover
allpossibleuses.Andethicalusers
havetoconsiderthat
permissionmightbe
necessary.

All right,Ihaveone
morequizforyou,

andthenwe'llget
intosomeofyour
questions.Whatrisk
doesaninstitutionassumeif
ituses
anorphanwork?Wow!







Right.Very
good.Potentialinfringementclaim.That'sabsolutelyright.Welldone.

Hirtle'sChartincludes
whichcategories
fordeterminingcopyrightstatus?

Architecturalworks?Never
published?Neverregistered?

Worksregistered
orfirstpublishedin
theUnitedStates?Sound
recording?Worksfirstpublishedin
theUnitedStatesby
foreignnationalsandUS
citizensliving
abroad?Or
alloftheabove?



Welldone.
Alloftheabove.







Whenreproducinga
corework

thatincludesthework
depicted,there
maybeadditionallayersofcopyrightto
clear.Thisisreferred
toasundercopyright?
Layeredrights?
Underlyingrights?Or
acopyrightcluster?Welldoneagain,
andunderlyingrights.AlthoughIwould--

there ispartofme
thatreallywantsto
trytopetitionwith
theCopyrightOffice,and
youcangetcopyright
clusterofficiallyinthere
somewhere.Itfeels
pretty
applicablesometimes.

Andwhat
arereasons
torequest
aone-time
permissionforuse?

Therights
holderpreviouslynoteda
preferencetohandle
eachrequestindividually?Projecthas
imminentdeadline;
needsa
fastreply?

Feesassessed
foreachuseby
therightsholder?Rightsholderbyanagency
likethe
ArtistsRightsSocietyor
ASCAP?Orallof
theabove?





Great.All oftheabove.

Becauseofthe
VisualArtistsRightsAct,
attributionisalegalrequirement
whenaninstitutionusesa
creator'swork.

Trueorfalse?Oh,lookslike
Imayhavefinally
gottenyouguys.Eh,
false.So
whileattribution



issomethingthatwe
alllike
tobeableto

provide,and
anattribution
definitelyhelpstowards

afairuseanalysisandfairusestance,
attributionisactuallynotlegallyrequiredbyVisualArtists
RightsAct.





Andsowiththat,I
thinkwe'll
beabletostart
gettingintoquestionshereina
minute.ButIwill
justsayasa
fewfinalthoughtsthat
byand
large,it'sbetterto
sitback,
dothat
analysiswhenyoucan.

Ifyou
canhavethetime
andtheabilityto
doitonan
individualitembasis,
that'samazing.
Butrememberingthatoverall
you'reprobably
goingtobelooking
atsomeofthose
broaderstrokes.

Andtoreallybeable
tolookatthat
attributionmayormaynot
besomethingthatyou
consider,that
youmay
wantyourcollectionknown,but
whereyou
arelegally
requiredor
nottohaveit.


Andrememberingtoconsider
notonlytheintellectual
propertyand
copyrightissuesthatyou
mighthavewitha
project,but
alsothosenon-intellectual
propertyissuesaswell.



Thankyou.
Iappreciate
allofyoustaying
withmetoday.

OK,
I'mgoing
toputupthe
evaluationlink.The
evaluationsarereally
importantto
us.So
Ido
hopethatyoufolks
willfill
thisout.

AndI'll
readthequestions.SoCindy
McKayasked,
forunpublished
works,wasitis

1893for
identifiableauthors,but120yearsforanonymous
work?Whyisit
1893?

Oh,
heavens,1893.
OK,holdon.Itis--

1893.Isthat120
years?

Thatwouldbe
mytypo.
Soapologies.





Itshouldactuallybe
1899.Goodcatch.Sorry.

OK.Allright.

Ithought
Igotallthose
datesandyearsupdated.

Thatonemusthave
totallysnuckthrough.Somyapologies
there.That shouldshould
be1899
toparallel
withthat120years.Sosorryaboutthat.

OK.Allright.




MargoGoodstein

says,does
amuseum
needtogetpermission
beforecreating
adisplay
facsimilefor

anexhibit?

Andyou
probablyjustcoveredthat,
right?

Yeah,andforbetteror
forworse,it comesback
toa
littlebit
ofitdepends.Doesyourinstitution
believethatpotentiallyisthatfairuse?
Unfortunately,themuseum
isnotcoveredby
thatsection108thatwetalked
about,thelibrariesandarchivesare
coveredby.
Sofor
amuseum
tomakeareproduction
ofthatandput
areproductionondisplay,

theylikely
aregoingtoeither
lookat
isitsomethingthat
theybelieveisa
fairuseinorder
tobeableto
havethatondisplay?
Oris
ita


casewherethey'regoing
tobeseekinga
permissionanda
license?

And



OK,Iwillspeak
up.There
isaquestion.Canyouplease
definea
governmentwork?And
therewasadiscussion
aboutit,butI'll
letyou
defineit,
too,please.

Oh,sure,so
Iam
specificallyspeakinginregardsto
USfederal
governmentworks.These
would beworkscreatedby
employeesof
thefederalgovernmentinthe
courseoftheiremployment.
Soit
maynotbesomebody
governedby

afederalcontractbecause
thatlikelywouldbe


somethinggovernedbythat
contractspecifically.

Butlookingatfederalgovernment
workersin
thecourseoftheir
employment,thatworks
thattheyproduceare
inthepublicdomain.

Thatsame
exemptionthat
thegovernment
worksbeinginthe
publicdomain

isgoingtobe
differentwhenyoustart
lookingattheUS,
state,and
localgovernmentlevels.And
thoseare
eachdetermined
bydifferent
stateand
locallaws.

Sooneofthe
examplesthat
peopleputinwas
WPAwork.
Anddoes
thatqualify
or--

Correct.
SotheWPAworks
arelargely
inthe
publicdomain.Sothat
isagreatexception.
Solookingatthe
DorotheaLangephotographthatI
had,thatwasa
workthatsheactually
usedas
partofherwork
inthe
WPAandisin
thepublicdomain.Yetotherworks
byDorthea
Langtakenaroundthe
sametimeperiodare

stillunder
copyright.Andhercopyrightis
actuallymaintainedbythe
OaklandMuseumofCalifornia.

OK.Whatwouldthesituation
befor
somethinglikeaceramic
vasecreated
byNewcomb
Pottery?Is
thisacorporation?Whatwould--


whataboutwhenwe
alsoknowthepotterorthe
decoratoror
thepotter?




Thatwasa
casewhereyoucould
potentiallyhavemultiple
rightsholders.


Alot
ofitwasgoing
tobegovernedby
thecontracts
betweenthe
corporationand

theartist
and/ordesigner.

Thatitmightbe
acasewherethecorporationholdsallofthe
rights.But
itmightbea
casewhererightsare
jointlyheldbetweenthe
corporationand
thedesigner
orartist.

I'veseenit
bothways.
I'vealsoseenthis
whenyoulookat



fashionphotographs

andthingswherethat
appearinVogueMagazineorsomethingas
well.Sometimesthosephotographers
holdtherightsto

theirimages.
Butother
times,it's
transferredtothe

governingcorporation.Sothat
exampleslikeVogueisprobably
mightbeheldby
CondéNast,butit
mightbeheldby
theindividualphotographerorboth.

OK.SoMarkCrowdsner

said,define
publish.Is
anO'Keeffe
paintingthat
wasnotdisplayedpublished?



Maybe.Publish,when
itcomes--

[LAUGHS]

Yeah,I
know.There's
alotwhenit
startsgettingintolegal
andwiththecopyright
wherethe
answersarealways,maybe
oritdepends.So
publishwhenitcomes
toartworkbecomes

amuchgrayerarea.

Itmighthavebeen
actualdisplayina
galleryor
amuseumexhibition.Itcouldhavebeen
publicationin
acatalog
orauctioncatalog.And
publicationscan
occuryears
aftercreation
aswell.


Soit's--


oneof
theareas
withincopyright
lawthatIwill
say,workingfrompersonal
experience.Andparticularly
ifyouareworking
intherightsdetermination
andworldofin
broadstroke,


you'renotgoingto
getdowntothat
publicationofindividual
worksresearch
veryoften,
especiallyifyou're
lookingatyourcollection
overallandmakingsome
ofthesebroadstrokes
andbroaddetermination.Wherethat
maybecomesin
tobemoreapplicable
isifthereis
somethingin
yourcollection
thatisveryimportant
thatyoureallywant
touse.

Andit'sonthatfence
asto
whetherit's
undercopyright
orin
thepublicdomain.That's
whereyoumightbe
doingthatadditionalresearchdown
totheitemlevel,


spendingsometimewith
theCopyrightOfficeanddoingthe
reallydeep-level
divetofigureout
registration,reregistration,firstpublicationstoreallytryto
makethisveryitem-levelspecificcopyrightdetermination.

Iknow,
forexample,
theArt
InstituteofChicagohasbeenable
toplace
acouple

drawingsthat
theyhaveofby
Picassointo
thepublicdomainbecause
theywereable,on
thesetwoveryspecific
drawings,todothe
item-levelresearchall
thewaydownto
find--I
think in
one
ofthem,itwas
registered,butnever
re-registered,soit
feel
intothepublic
domain.Onewasnever
publishedand
somethingelse.Idon't
rememberallthenuances.

Butthatresearch

ontwoworkstook
theirIP
counseloverayear.

Mostofusdon't
haveayeartospendresearchingjusttwo
individualworks.So

whilepublicationisimportant
whenyou're
havingtodothat
reallyintense
deep-levelresearch,I
don'tthinkmostof
usaregoingto
gettothatlevel.

OKso

wehave
aboutnineminutes.And
Iwilltellpeople
thatthe
questionsthat
don'tgetanswered,Iwillgive
toAnn,
andI
willpost
herwrittenanswersassoonas
Igetthemfrom
her.

Absolutely.

AndIcall
thosetrailingquestions.So


well,don't
worry,youquestionswillgetanswered.

SusanSchleck
says,what
aboutgeneral
newspaperarticles
foruse
byamuseum?I'm
assumingthatthismeans

articlesthat



themuseum
isusing?




Well,thatwould

couldoneoftwoways.If
you'reactuallytalkingabout
displayingthe
actualnewspaper
intheactualarticle,
thatwould
befine.


Ifyou'relookingat
productionsofit,
youmightneeda
license.Again,
itmightbea
fairusedependingon
howyou'reutilizingit.

Butmost
likely,if
there'sa
specificarticlethatyou're
lookingatreproducing,there'sprobably
copyrightin
thateitherwithto
thejournalistorthe

corporateownerofthat
newspaper.

OK,Isee
thatAlbert
says,what
isthelegalityregarding
reviewcopies
donatedto
thelibrary?

Becausetherewasn'ta
firstsale,
Idon'tfeelcomfortable
addingto
ourcollection
andreturnitto
thedonor.
What'sthebestway
tocommunicatethisto
potentialdonors

andco-workers

whomight
notagree
orunderstand?



Isthatacopyright
question?

I'mnotsure
ifthat'sactuallyspecifically
acopyrightquestionor
moreofa--

Procedure--

--goingintoquestion

inan
ownershipof
actualphysicalmaterialquestion.

Obviously,mycontactinformationisonthe
screen.So
I'mhappy
totrytoanswer
thatquestion,butI
thinkImightneed
somemore
informationtofigure
thatoneout.

OK.




Diana,I'm
notevengoingto
attemptthis,
says,does
amuseum
libraryarchives
havetherightto
chargesomeone
ausage
feepublishing
aphotoanda
book?Forexample,if
thisphotoistechnically
inthepublicdomain,

notjustafee
tohaveaphoto
scanned,but
fortherightto
usethework?I
thinkthat'sareally
goodquestion.


Sothis
isdefinitelythearea
inthe
fieldofrightsreproduction
thatis

shiftingandchangingright
now.That
alot
moreinstitutionsaremoving
towardsmoreopenaccess
inwaiving


reproductionfeesfor

licensingmaterials,butmay
stillcharge
aimage
preparationfee.So
thatworktohave
anyphotographtakenor
anewscanprepared
tobasicallycovertheir

stafftime
andexpertiseandwork

tocreatethatnew
digitalsurrogate
tosend--


Andthis
iskindof--it's
anevolving
area.Anditreally
comesbacktoinstitutional
practiceand
whatyour
institutionwantsto
doandwhetherthey
acceptareproductionfeeornot
forworks
underlyingthatare
inthepublicdomain.

TheMinneapolisMuseum
ofArt
atNewfield,
wedon't
chargeareproductionfeeforworksthat
areinthepublic
domain.Wemakethose
availableunderopenaccess.


Butifthework
isinthepublic
domainandneedsnew
photography,weare
goingto
that'sourimagepreparation
feebecause
dependingonwhatthe
workis,
howmanyofour
staffmembersneedto
getinvolved,
isitsomethinghuge
thatweneedour
installationcrudeactually
relocatetheworkto
ourphotostudio?Our
photographerandour
photo
editor'stimeto
prepthatfile.So--

OK.Howdoes
copyrighttransfer
workwhen
thecreator
diesif
nospecific
beneficiaryisnamed?


Oh,and
onemorequestionregarding
thedefinitionofa
copyrightablework.Where
dodesigned
objectslikepoliticalcampaign
posters,event
posters,commemoratives,

coins,and
housewaresfall?Is
acopyright--


iscopyright
anissue
forartifacts
likethis,
particularlyifthedesignerisunknown?Sothat'stwo
questions.

Yeah,that
wasdefinitelytwoquestions.
Canyou
saythefirstpart
again?

How
doescopyright
transferwork
whenthecreatordies

ifnospecificbeneficiary
wasnamed?

OK,solet
metacklethatpart
first.[LAUGHS]

Sotransferofcopyright
willactually
follow.So

ideallyand
hopefully,youwill
beinacase
wherethe

creatorhas


createda
will.And
dependingon


howprolific
theywereinlife
andhowsuccessfultheywere,perhapsthey've
createda

foundation,ortheyhavea
functioningestatethat
willthentakeover
theirmanagement
oftheirrights.

Ifhowever,there
isnowillor
nofoundationorsomething
likethat,that'screated
tohave
therightstransferredtoafterthe--management
ofthoserightstransfer
toafterthecreator
haspassedaway,thenit'sgoing
tofollow

intestacylaws.
Itwill
varybystatefor
thatdescendency.
Somost
often,that
wouldbethenlooking

firstto

aspouse
orpartner.

Ifthere'snospouse
orpartner,
thenlooking

todescendants,
sochildren

thengrandchildren.

AndthisiswhereI'm
sayingtherehavedefinitely
beentimeswhereyou
mightfalldown,and
somebodymight
bea
grandchildorgreat
grandchildofsomeone
andthatmayor
maynotrealizethat
theyactually
managetherightsfor
thispersonnow.But
yeah,so it wouldfollow
yourintestacy
lawsof
theparticularstatewhere
theypassedaway.

OK.


Let'sanswer
onemorequestion,thenI'llsend
thisthe
restoftheseto
you.Let'ssee--apologies,
ifyouansweredthis.
ThisisforKenny
Libbon.Ifyouanswered
thisearlier,butregarding
fairuse
intermsofa
displayin
amuseum,

doesfairuseapply

ifthemuseumusesacopy
ofthe
originalwork,i.e,acopyof
aphotograph
ratherthan
puttingtheoriginalphotograph
ondisplay
aslongasthe
originalisinthe
collectionofthe
museum?

Greatquestion.So
yes,ifyou'reputting
theactual
objectorphotographondisplay,
thenyoudon'tneed
tobelookingat
fairuse
analysisorexceptionin
thelaw.
If you'recreating
areproductionofthat
toinclude
eitheras

partof
thelabelcopyor
adidacticoreven
areproduction
justfor
preservationpurposesinsteadofputting
theoriginalobjecton
display,Iwouldsay
thatmost
likelyyouwouldhave
averystrongfairusestance
forthatin-galleryexhibitionuse.
Itislikelygoing
tohave


moreofaeducational
endgoal.

It'sgoingto
bemore
non-commercialinits
use.It's
goingtobecontextualized
withtheotherworks
aroundit.


SoIthinkthat
there'sastrongeropportunity
forthat
topotentiallybea
fairusetothem.

Butagain,
that'sgoingtobe
ananalysisthathas
tobedoneby

eachinstitution
andbasedonwhat


levelof
riskand
liabilitythatinstitutioniscomfortablewithpotentially
takingon.

OK,I
thinkthat'stheend
fortoday.
Iwillsendthese
questionsandgetanswers
tothem,
andI'llmakesure
thatallofyour
questionsget
answered.Pleasefillout
theevaluation.

Andeverything
willbepostedexceptmaybethe
trailingquestions

inthenextfew
days.SoasI
said,if

theadforthis
webinarisnolonger
ontheConnectingtoCollectionsCarewebsite,
you'llfind
thewebinar,

allthehandouts,therecording,thePowerPoint
slides,andthetrailing
questionsin
the2.19
archives.Sothankyou
verymuch.

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