BUT THAT IS ANOTHER HISTORY ART 5 – ROMANESQUE ART In the middle of the ninth century, by the year 843, with the Treaty of Verdun, the great empire of Charlemagne began to break apart due to the ambitions of its grandchildren. The weakness of these monarchies that emerged from the ruins of the empire … made it necessary for the kings to agree with the feudal lords, who controlled many regions. This was what we call Feudalism, and Europe became rural, depending more on agriculture, while commerce and industry stagnated. Even so, the arrival to the French throne of the Capeto, the end of the invasions of Vikings, Arabs and Magyars … and the beginning of the reconquest in the Iberian peninsula … It gave some stability to this Western Europe and it was when Romanesque Art flourished, and it would last until the 13th century, when it began to be overthrown by Gothic art. “I am gothic” The Romanesque idea was to create a homogeneous and unitary art. It is in fact, the first international style of Western culture. An art at the service of God and the Church, which sought to instruct in the knowledge of the Holy Scriptures and represented the spiritual unity of Europe despite internal political divisions. This art was based on Roman art, although we will see that, in the end, each place had its own style. ROMANTIC ARCHITECTURE Romanesque art would not exist if it were not for monastic orders. Let’s start from the beginning. Year 530. A monk named Benito de Nursia founded the Abbey of Montecassino, and with it the Benedictine order, which was expanding throughout much of France and Germania. These Benedictine monks sought God through three vows: obedience, chastity and poverty. But the fame of these monasteries attracted the curiosity of kings and nobles and filled them with privileges. In 910 the Duke of Aquitaine William the Pious donated a villa in Burgundy to Pope Sergio III, and it was there that the famous Cluny Abbey was built. This temple has undergone many transformations over time, but its Romanesque version had 5 ships, two cruise ships and a ambulatory with 4 absidioli. On its facade there were two towers on each side that made bell towers. These Cluniac monks became angry with the Benedictines for their corruption and decided to make a reform to return to previous austerity. The foundation of cluniacenses monasteries multiplied by Europe contributing to spread a unique style of architecture, which was, of course, the Romanesque, whose origin dates back to the year 1000. We could highlight some monasteries built in these years. All followed a similar pattern. The central nucleus of these buildings was the cloister, or central courtyard, almost always quadrangular in shape and surrounded by a portico, around which the other units were articulated. The Refectory was the dining room, the Chapter Room was a meeting room, the cells were bedrooms, and highlights the Scriptorium, or library, where these monks were dedicated to copy and translate manuscripts of Antiquity, and thanks to this work thousands of works from Greece, Rome and other sites have been able to reach our days. “Very good very good” These monks of Cluny ended up giving great importance to the cult of the sacred relics of Christianity. That if a piece of cross, that if a reliquary with a dead martyr, that if a layer that belonged to a colleague of Yisus … There were three places where pilgrimages began to be very common. First the catacombs of Rome, where saints and potatoes were buried. Then Jerusalem, where Christ had lived but was now taken by Muslims. As they used to kill the Christian pilgrims who approached everything ended up leading to the Crusades. If you want to know in detail this turbulent time, above I leave the link. Finally, the most important for those of Cluny was the Camino de Santiago, a route that supposedly made the apostle Santiago, also called Jacobo, to Aseconia, a town that is what was later called Santiago de Compostela, in Galicia. At that time the people were very religious and on top of that, it was almost the year 1000. This is important because according to the Apocalypse of San Juan, the end of the world was going to come or, at least, a time of very chunky calamities. “Lord, have mercy” Of course, the rock was crowded alive with this shit, and they thought that pilgrimage would win the sky. This transit of pilgrims began to generate a flow of travelers that caused trade routes to be reopened in Europe. Here there was business, that Cluny knew very well, and to save those relics pilgrimage churches were created on those routes, decorated with great beauty and luxury. In general, the first Romanesque temples were inspired by Roman basilicas. Typically, 3 to 5 ships, with a taller and wider central, a short transept and apse-shaped header. However, as time went by that evolved to the prototype of a pilgrimage church with a Latin cross plan and a longer transept, giving the shape of the cross to the church; and then small chapels called absidiolos all over the head. In addition, he added the ambulatory or ambulatory, a passage that left the aisles and surrounded the presbytery. The central nave used to be taller, and one of two, or on the upper floors windows were placed, not too large … or galleries were created on the lateral ships called stands, open to the central nave through a series of openings or holes called triforiums. Anyway, if they put windows, they were not glazed and were tiny, so there was not much light. Undoubtedly, they were quite heavy temples, and to support everything, robust pillars were used, some of them cross-shaped, because there had to be crosses everywhere. In many cases these pillars were composed, that is, they had attached columns. And in these columns we find capitals, which were the favorite places for plastic decoration. The preferred vaults were those of cannon and those of edge, that included fajones arcs that divided them in sections and that corresponded in the outside with the buttresses, pilasters attached to the external wall that counteracted the thrust exerted by the vaults. On the other hand, the formal arches are parallel to the axis of the vault, and that open the central nave with the rest, and were almost semicircular arches. And another thing that was used were the tubes and scallops, of Byzantine influence. And in some cases, there were towers that were bell towers, where the religious rang the bells to warn that it was time to go to Mass. “ENOUGH NOW” In France we can find a Romanesque Burgundian style, such as that of the Abbey of Santa Maria Magdalena de Vézelay, or the Church of Saint-Étienne, in Nevers. In Provence, being closer to Italy, they were more classics, and highlights the Church of San Trófimo, in Arles. In the French regions of Auvergne and Languedoc, this Romanesque style developed a lot. This highlights the Church of Saint Sernin, in Toulouse. And special mention is the Abbey Church of Santa Fe de Conques, a popular stop among the pilgrims who made the road to Santiago. Her name comes from Santa Fe, a young woman who apparently was martyred and whose remains ended up as a sacred relic in this church. The interior is simple, but spectacular, and although it has little decoration, it should be noted the eardrum of the facade, with a relief on the Last Judgment. The Church of Notre-Dame la Grande de Poitiers is also of Romanesque style, but of a late Romanesque, which we see that it is already fused with the Gothic style, where the rosette will be fashionable, that glass in the front wall. In Italy there was a Romanesque of Lombard roll, which was characterized by the use of poor materials such as Sillarejo, and well, it was not very influential that we say, but some famous constructions stand out. The Basilica of Saint Ambrose of Milan is the best example of this Lombard Romanesque. Its entrance is a long open quadripod, it has two bell towers on the sides and no transept. Another very famous is the Cathedral of Pisa, with its baptistery and its leaning bell tower. And the characteristic is that these three elements are not attached, but appear separately. By the way, the Tower of Pisa did not build it that way, but it was inclined by the crap of pillars they made and by the terrain, which was flimsy. “To take for ass, milk” In addition, in the area of Tuscany we can see some churches with colored marbles and black basalt, which seems to have made them LEGO. And then, in the southern area, which would be invaded by the Normans, we find buildings that mixed European Romanesque with Byzantine and Islamic influences. Some examples are the Cefalu Cathedral and the Monreale Cathedral, both located in Palermo, on the island of Sicily. In Germany, as I mentioned in the previous video, we will have an architecture that blends the Ottonian style with the Romanesque. Its constructions were characterized by their verticality, for having double apse and blind arches on the facade, something called Bandas Lombardas, and as the name indicates, it was taken from the Lombard pre-Romanesque. There were also many towers, the famous westwerk, and high-rise dome with polyhedral roofs and domes. The Espira Cathedral or the Mainz Cathedral are important. The Romanesque in England began to feel strongly from the eleventh century, especially after the invasion of the Normans led by William the Conqueror in 1066, hence the style is called Anglo-Norman Romanesque. Of those years the Durham Cathedral in the north of England stands out, which introduces novelties such as ogive vaults, also called ribbed vaults, which are going to be very typical in the Gothic. Finally we have to talk about the Romanesque in the Iberian Peninsula, the one that is going to enter the exam. The Romanesque begins to enter the peninsula thanks to the pilgrimage of religious by the Camino de Santiago … and also by the political opening of Sancho III, King of Navarra, who needed help to fight against Muslims. Much of the examples of Romanesque architecture date from the eleventh and twelfth centuries. The first place where the Romanesque developed on the peninsula was in Catalonia, because that territory, the Hispanic Brand, belonged to the Carolingian Franks, so they influenced it a lot. They emphasize temples with Lombard touches, with blind arches or Lombard bands, and slender bell towers. Some examples are the Monastery of Sant Pere de Roda, from 1022, the Church of Santa María de Tahull, in the province of Lleida, and the Monastery of Santa María de Ripoll, founded in 888 by Wifredo el Velloso, 1st count of Barcelona, and which was subsequently expanded. In fact, these counts were buried here, and highlights its cloister, the bell tower, its interior ships and its 7 apses. Along the Camino de Santiago, or rather, the roads, works were built such as the Cathedral of San Pedro de Jaca, north of Aragon, with very Mudejar influence. In Pamplona, the Navarrese capital, the Cathedral of Santa María la Real is important, although it now has a gothic and neoclassical style on the facade … And also in this region we would have the Monastery of San Salvador de Leyre, where the first kings of Navarre were buried, and the Church of Santa María de Eunate, which was an old Templar hermitage and has an octagonal floor and a porticoed gallery of 33 arches and decorated capitals. In León is the Basilica of San Isidoro, which was a very famous Sevillian monk who created a kind of 1st encyclopedia to gather all the knowledge of humanity. Of this church they emphasize its covers with reliefs in its facade and in the external eardrum. In Palencia, in the Church of San Martín de Tours, or of Frómista, we can see two towers flanking the facade, very much of the German scroll, and another tower on the church’s cruiser, what is called dome. But without a doubt, the culmination of Spanish Romanesque architecture is the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela. Its construction was started in 1075 by Bernardo el Viejo and was not finished until 1128. Although yes, then it was partially renovated in Gothic and Baroque style. It presents a Latin cross plant with 3 ships both in the longitudinal and in the transept, and that meet in a huge cruise. The height of the central nave was 22 meters, and it has a barrel vault with slab arches, while the side aisles have edge vaults. Finally highlights a great ambulatory with 5 absidioli “I think … bua … awesome” Influenced by it, cathedrals such as Zamora were built, with a Gallon Romanesque dome; the Church of San Esteban de Segovia, and also the Old Cathedral of Salamanca, which is already mixed with Gothic style. Like the Church of Santo Domingo de Soria, which already shows a rose window on the facade. The truth is that not all Romanesque architecture was religious. There are many castles built in this style, such as the Castle of Loarre, in Huesca, or the Tower of London, in England, built by William the Conqueror and used as a prison for centuries. Among the most important walls in Europe are those of Ávila, also from the Romanesque period. Private houses, hospitals and bathrooms of the time have barely been preserved, since they were built with mierder materials such as adobe and wood. A pity But among the civil infrastructures that have been preserved more or less well are the bridges. The Queen’s Bridge in Puente la Reina, near Pamplona, is a good example. To finish this part simply say that this Romanesque also came to Nordic lands. In Denmark we have the Cathedral of Our Lady of Viborg, which has been rebuilt many times, and in Norway the Church of Our Lady of Trondheim, which was also restored in recent times. ROMANIC SCULPTURE Romanesque sculpture will consist essentially of reliefs, especially religious themes, and is completely subordinated to architecture. The artists of this era stopped worrying about the proportion, and the beauty of the forms, something typical of Greco-Roman art, was no longer sought. This Romanesque had a more didactic function, to teach people things about the Bible, so the content prevailed more. It moves away from naturalism to adapt to the columns or walls that decorate at that time, regardless of whether everything deforms, and the figures are almost always not very expressive, rigid and hieratic, that is, with little sense of movement. The typical place to place these reliefs was in the eardrums of the facades of the churches, where there used to be images of the Pantocrator, or triumphant Jesus Christ, or images of the Evangelists; but there were also reliefs in the archivolts, the door jambs, and also in the mullion, which is this little column that divided the entrance door. Everything was used, hence it is said that the Romanesque sculptors had a “horror of emptiness”, because they left nothing smooth between one thing and another. If in the classical art the capitals were mostly the Doric, the Ionian and the Corinthian, here we will find the historian (who tells you a story), the figurative capital (with human or animal figures), the capital of geometric ornamentation, and finally the capital of plant decoration. In the Romanesque there was also some exempt sculpture, which is the one that is not attached to a wall; or round bust sculpture, that is, that can be seen from all angles. The most common were those of Christ Crucified, or of the Virgin with the child Jesus, made most of them in ivory or polychrome wood. And also, as I said, issues related to the Last Judgment with the Christ Pantocrator with the Evangelists or themes that allude to sin and the devil were common. For example, in Burgundy there are apocalyptic scenes with disproportionate demonic beings on the eardrum of the Basilica of Mary Magdalene of Vézelay. In Provence, as I said, they were more attached to the classical canon, and we have figures of Jesus Christ and the Evangelists on the tympanum of Saint Trophimus of Arles. In Lombardy lived some of the few Romanesque sculptors we know with names and surnames. Benedetto Antelami was the author of the Pulpit of the Parma Cathedral, of which the relief of the Descent is preserved. On the other hand, Bonanno de Pisa dedicated himself to reliefs on bronze doors, such as those of the Cathedral of Pisa or those of the Church of Monreale. The Germans also decorated the doors of their cathedrals with reliefs. Some famous were those of the Basilica of Santa Maria del Capitolio, in Cologne, and also those of the Augsburg Cathedral, both of the eleventh century. In the eleventh-century Spain, the capitals of the Royal Pantheon stand out under the Church of San Isidoro de León, with still schematic and rigid scenes. It was there that most of the kings of León were buried. Of the same roll are the reliefs of the Doors of the Silverware of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, which shows different moments of the Bible. Already entering the twelfth century we can find the portico of the Monastery of Ripoll, in Girona, all covered by reliefs on different biblical passages. Another important example is the sculptural decoration of the Monastery of Santo Domingo de Silos, in Burgos, with capitals in its cloister with figures of chimeric animals and New Testament themes. Finally I will show you the cloister of San Juan de la Peña and that of Sant Cugat del Vallés, which has double columns because they saw that if they did not put them on, the building was going to be taken for the ass. At the end of that century, towards the year 1180, you can already notice more naturalism. Stresses the teacher Mateo, author of the Portico de la Gloria of the Cathedral of Santiago. In it appears the apostle James with Jesus Christ, the evangelists, angels and much more cool rock. And other examples would be the Christ of Batlló or Majesty of Batlló, or the Capitals of San Martín de Frómista. ROMANTIC PAINT To finish the video we will talk about Romanesque painting. Like the sculpture, it will also be subordinated to the architecture and we will be able to see it in walls, walls, vaults and especially in the apses of the churches. There he used to paint the Pantocrator inside a mandorla and surrounded by the 4 Evangelists, also called Tetramorph as a whole, and each one was associated with an animal. In the Vaults and walls used to illustrate passages from the Old and New Testaments. And speaking of bibles, the miniature, that is, the drawings that illustrated the books, were also very important. And apart from this, highlights the Anglo-Norman Romanesque Tapestry of Bayeux, which chronicles the conquest of William the Conqueror. The most commonly used technique was fresh, but tempering was also used, which as it is used as a binder milk or egg, takes longer to dry and gives time to paint more things. Table paint was also used to decorate altars, but it was not very common. Romanesque painting was mostly symbolic, and its objective was to instruct the population, mostly illiterate, in the religion of Christ. We find expressive figures, but flat and devoid of realism, very schematized, as if it were a comic. “Horrifying” The color is flat, unnatural, and there is neither perspective nor volume. There are no lighting effects or landscaping. In France I would highlight the pictorial ensemble of the Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe vault, where we see biblical scenes such as the construction of the Tower of Babel or Noah’s Ark, of Byzantine influence, as in the Auxerre Crypts and in the paintings of Berzé-la-Ville. In Italy we have the frescoes of the Church of Sant ‘Angelo in Formis, near Capua, with a lot of Byzantine influence. And byzantine influence are also the paintings and mosaics of the Basilica of St. Gideon in Cologne, Germany, and the frescoes of the miracles of Jesus in the Church of St. George of Oberzell. And we ended up in the Iberian Peninsula, with possibly the best examples of Romanesque painting, which was influenced by both Spanish Pre-Romanesque and Byzantine art, French Romanesque and Italian. In Catalonia we have the frescoes of churches such as Sant Clement and Santa María, both in Tahull, and which have marked Italian-Byzantine influence. Mur’s teacher was the author of the decoration of the apse of the Monastery of Santa María de Mur, in Lleida, with the Pantocrator over a starry sky. Without a doubt, one of the best examples of Romanesque painting. “Yes Yes Yes” In Castile, Romanesque painting reached a high level with the pictorial ensemble of the Royal Pantheon of the Church of San Isidoro de León, of which I have already spoken, which some call the Sistine Chapel of Spanish Romanesque, and has French and Mozarabic influence. Another pictorial decoration to highlight is that of the hermitage of Vera Cruz de Maderuelo, in Segovia, with scenes from Creation and Original Sin. And then there would be San Baudelio de Berlanga in Soria … the Segovian Church of San Justo … or the Church of San Román in Toledo, both with remarkable Islamic influence. And all this was very beautiful, but in the middle of the 12th century, towards the year 1140 or so, in northern France, a new fashion was imposed in European art: Gothic Art. But I leave that for the next video.